. Presence: With MOC, contacts are enabled with

. Presence: With MOC, contacts are enabled with presence status, which can be modified individually or by using advanced status with direct integration with Microsoft Office 2003, as shown in Figure 1-15. . Application Sharing: MOC provides contacts with the capability to share applications, including the desktop, with one another. . Whiteboard: With the MOC Whiteboard feature, contacts can express ideas and thoughts by using a shared whiteboard application, as shown in Figure 1-16. . Office Integration: MOC provides direct integration with the Microsoft Office system, with integration into Microsoft Outlook 2003 for calendar presence, and the capability to be started within Office programs such as Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and SharePoint Portal Server 2003. More information related to integration with Microsoft Office 2003 is covered in Chapter 3. . Telephony Integration: MOC and LCS provide integration into PBX and PSTN services to provide contacts with a truly integrated communications client. Figure 1-15 25 Introducing Microsoft Unified Communications
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Introducing Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 Without the Microsoft

Figure 1-11 Figure 1-12 . Mode Type: With MOC, you can take part in a messaging conversation in one of three modes: handwrite, type, or convert. Tablet PC users now have the option to handwrite their instant messages to contacts, as shown in Figure 1-13. 23 Introducing Microsoft Unified Communications
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Introducing Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 Without the Microsoft

Introducing Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 Without the Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 client, Live Communications Server would just be a service. The attraction to the Live Communications Server solution is primarily due to the features and functionality present in the Communicator 2005 client, with its capability to enable secure Instant Messaging, communication and telephony integration, as well as the capability it offers to connect with public Instant Messaging contacts through one client application. This section highlights some of the most popular features within Microsoft Office Communicator 2005. For more detailed information, please visit the Microsoft Live Communications Server website via www.microsoft.com/lcs. Communicator 2005 Features Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 is packed full of features and functionality beyond Instant Messaging. Based on customer requests and common use of existing Instant Messaging application features, Communicator 2005 provides the following features out of the box: . Instant Messaging: Instant Messaging is provided for Communicator 2005 users to contact one another or public Instant Messaging applications such as Yahoo Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, and MSN Messenger, as shown in Figure 1-10. . Contact Search: This feature provides the capability to search for a contact by name, as shown in Figure 1-11. During a contact search, a user enters the name of an individual or group and instantly can view the contact s presence without having to add the resource to their contact list. . File Transfer: File transfer, shown in Figure 1-12, is provided to enable quick access to sharing and sending of files between contacts. To enhance your LCS environment, utilize the anti-virus integration capabilities to cleanse files before they are received. Figure 1-10 22 Chapter 1
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Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 utilizes these SIP methods

Figure 1-9 MTLS Live Communications Server also uses Mutual Transport Layer Security (MTLS) to configure a trust between Live Communications Server servers. A server certificate is applied within the Live Communications Server console to enable a MTLS connection from one Live Communications Server to another with an Extended Key Usage (EKU) setting of Server Authentication. MTLS is also used to provide secure connectivity to the public Instant Messaging networks, which include Yahoo, MSN, and AOL. Active Directory INTERNAL ACCESS Resources Business Unit AD Groups LCS Access Proxy LCS Director LCS Remote Access via TLS LCS Internal Access via TLS Load Balancer LCS Enterprise Edition Pool Servers LCS Back-End SQL Servers LCS IM Archiving Server Enterprise CA Global Catalog Server Business Unit AD Users Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate MTLS MTLS CLUSTERED MTLS EXTERNAL ACCESS $ TLS TLS IM Archiving Agent 21 Introducing Microsoft Unified Communications
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Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 utilizes these SIP methods

In this example, Dan Willis is sending an invitation to initiate a messaging session with me. If I want to communicate with Dan, even when it s 2 A.M., I will respond with the following SIP response message: SIP/2.0 200 OK Via: SIP/2.0/UDP workstation1.connectedinnovation.com To: Joe ;tag=987 From: Dan Willis ;tag=123 Call-ID: 972-555-5555@192.168.1.102 CSeq: 1 INVITE Contact: 192.168.1.103 Content-Type: application/sdp Content-Length: 200 As you can see, SIP messages contain the information required for one contact to communicate with another contact, much like our mobile and digital phones use to contact one another for example, when someone calls you on the phone and you see the Caller ID. Caller ID is one of many settings that are negotiated between callers. Introducing Transport Layer Security Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the security protocol that is enabled for use within a Live Communications Server environment to provide encryption and authentication trusts between LCS clients. This book provides an overview of TLS, so I encourage you to read the RFC 2246 for TLS. As the next evolution of SSL, TLS continues to provide an encrypted transport for messaging traffic to be sent and received. Enabling TLS within a Live Communications Server environment, like SSL in a web server environment, requires a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), which requires certificate configuration and application on both the client and server devices. Live Communications Server requires each server to have a TLS certificate installed, while the root Enterprise Certificate Authority that issued the server certificates must be trusted on the client device, whether it is a laptop, desktop, or mobile device. Figure 1-9 shows an architecture diagram that depicts how TLS and Mutual Transport Layer Security (MTLS), described in the following section, are used for client-to-server and server-to-server communications within a Live Communications Server environment. Live Communications Server does not require TLS for client-to-server communication, as it offers TCP as its default communication protocol and uses Active Directory to authenticate users, but it does require MTLS for server-to-server communication, which means if you are deploying a LCS Enterprise Edition pool or multiple LCS servers, you will need to enable MTLS connectivity between servers. Enabling TLS within your Live Communications Server environment will provide the level of security that is required to encrypt and authenticate messages between your Live Communications Server users and servers. 20 Chapter 1
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Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 utilizes these SIP methods

Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 utilizes these SIP methods for client registration and to send messages between clients and servers. Figure 1-8 depicts an example of SIP methods that are used by Microsoft Office Communicator 2005. Figure 1-8 SIP Messages Using the methods described in the previous section, SIP messages are used to communicate requests and responses between SIP clients and SIP servers. The following is an example of a SIP request message: INVITE sip:joes@connectedinnovation.com SIP/2.1 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP workstation1.connectedinnovation.com Max-Forward: 70 To: Joe From: Dan Willis ;tag=456 Call-ID: 972-555-5555@192.168.1.102 CSeq: 1 INVITE Contact: Content-Type: application/sdp Content-Length: 200 LCS 2005 SP1 Environment REGISTER (SIP URI) INVITE MESSAGE NOTIFY BYE NEGOTIATE (Settings) OPTIONS (Video, Collab) 19 Introducing Microsoft Unified Communications
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Introducing Session Initiation Protocol Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

SIP Method Method Description INFO The INFO method is used to notify a SIP client about information regarding the contact or contacts with whom a specific contact is initiating a message. For example, in LCS, when a Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 client is Instant Messaging another user, the INFO method is used to indicate whether the other contact is typing a message. The INFO method is also used with 3PCC gateways that allow you to control and view events for your desktop phone. These INFO messages send commands to the PBX and are used to receive events from the PBX. INVITE This method initiates a SIP message, including the identifying information for each SIP client as well as the type of message that is to be exchanged (Instant Message, Collaboration, etc.). The INVITE method initiates all sessions and is the root method for SIP. MESSAGE The MESSAGE method is used for SIP Instant Messaging sessions. The MESSAGE method contains the actual text message body that one contact sends to another. NEGOTIATE The NEGOTIATE method is used to implement settings such as message compression. When used, this is the first SIP message that servers will exchange after TLS negotiation has completed and before user-level SIP data is exchanged. NOTIFY SIP clients receive a NOTIFY method response when a SUBSCRIBE event occurs. An example of the NOTIFY method in LCS is when a Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 client receives a notification that they have been added to a contact list. OPTIONS The OPTIONS method is used by a SIP client to determine which features have been enabled by the SIP service or other SIP-compliant devices. Regarding Live Communications Server, the Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 client will verify the options available for a contact to use during messaging sessions. REFER The SIP REFER method is more commonly known in the VoIP world for forwarding calls. Within Microsoft Office Communicator 2005, you can forward incoming calls to a mobile phone using the REFER method. REGISTER The REGISTER method is used to sign users in using their assigned SIP URI. SERVICE SIP uses the SERVICE method to add or search for contacts. The SERVICE method uses Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) to carry these data transactions. Remember that the Live Communications Server Back-End Server will receive data when a user adds a contact to his or her contacts list or changes other client settings, so the SERVICE method needs to use a messaging protocol that is transaction-based in order to do this, i.e., SOAP. SUBSCRIBE SIP clients use the SUBSCRIBE method to subscribe to specific events, including presence status and contact settings such as the allow and block profiles. It also enables clients to be added to contact lists and groups. 18 Chapter 1
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Introducing Session Initiation Protocol Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

user1@companyname.com. Properly planning how the company will set SIP URIs for each client will prove useful in later stages of a Live Communications Server deployment and for future use of Microsoft Unified Communications products. SIP Methods Session Initiation Protocol uses its own methods to communicate SIP messages between SIP clients and SIP servers. Similar to other Internet protocols, SIP provides a messaging structure. SIP messages include the following methods: . INVITE . ACK . BYE . CANCEL . OPTIONS . REGISTER . SUBSCRIBE . NOTIFY . MESSAGE . INFO . SERVICE . NEGOTIATE . REFER Each SIP message request requires a method, a SIP URI, and the version of SIP that the message request is using. The following table describes briefly each SIP method. SIP Method Method Description ACK The ACK and INVITE message are synonymous in that they are sent together by an initiating client. The ACK method verifies that the session has been initiated. BYE The BYE method terminates the SIP session. This method would be used by a contact that has finished its session with another contact and is ready to exit the session. CANCEL A CANCEL method is used by a client that may have a pending message request that it wants to cancel, terminating the request, but not the session. This would be used if a contact wanted to initiate a collaboration sharing session with another contact and then decided to cancel the request, although both contacts could continue other messaging requests such as Instant Messaging each other. Table continued on following page 17 Introducing Microsoft Unified Communications
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Introducing Session Initiation Protocol Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

Introducing Session Initiation Protocol Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is the protocol that Live Communications Server uses to transfer messages between Live Communications Server clients. While this book introduces SIP for its use within Live Communications Server, I recommend that you read the Request for Comment (RFC) 3261, available via the Internet by browsing to www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3261.txt. To describe SIP in laypersons terms, SIP messages are initiated by a client application that requests information from a SIP server. SIP manages not only instant messages, but also multimedia communications as a whole. In relation to Live Communications Server, Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 and Windows Messenger both initiate SIP requests to a Live Communications Server, and the Live Communications Server responds to each client by sending and receiving instant messages, invoking collaboration requests that include whiteboard sharing, and invoking video and voice communications. This is why when enterprises are interested in integrating Live Communications Server with their VoIP service, the VoIP routers and phones must be SIP compliant in order to provide a seamless connection. Session Initiation Protocol is the primary multimedia messaging protocol and it is heavily used not only by Live Communications Server, but also by VoIP, PSTN, and PBX providers, as these solutions are becoming increasingly popular in the commercial and residential markets. You ve likely heard the Vonage Woo Hooo commercial more than one million times. The point is that telephony services, instant communications, and collaboration are now both here and in demand, and Live Communications Server is the best interface for this technology with the release of Microsoft Office Communicator 2005. Real-time communications have become a necessity among business and consumer markets. The demand for instant communications between individuals has reached an unprecedented level, communications that include not only Instant Messaging, but integrated video, voice, and collaboration communication. Although many people think of teenagers as the prime users of Instant Messaging and webcams, using popular technologies that include Yahoo Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, and MSN Messenger, these applications have emerged in the business landscape and are rapidly becoming a preferred tool of communication over e-mail. Why not? You can now reach someone immediately and in return receive an immediate response. As suggested earlier, the main issue involved with enabling these popular applications within a business enterprise today is that public network messaging applications do not provide the level of security that businesses require to protect corporate data and communications. SIP Architecture SIP is divided into three different components. A SIP proxy receives client requests and then determines where to forward these requests (to other SIP servers). With regard to Live Communications Server, a client using Microsoft Office Communicator 2005 sends a SIP request to an LCS SIP proxy server, which sends the request to a Live Communications Server pool server or Standard Edition server. The Live Communications Server pool server or Standard Edition server then acts as the next component of an SIP server: a SIP redirect server. A redirect server receives requests from a SIP proxy or a SIP client directory and then responds to a client as to where the message is to be sent. The final SIP component is an SIP registrar server, which receives a SIP client request and then maps that client to a specific SIP uniform resource identifier (URI). The SIP URI is the sign-in name that LCS users will use to sign into the LCS service. It is important that you first outline what the SIP URI for your company or customer will be before deploying LCS, as the SIP URI will be a user s identity for all Microsoft Unified Communications products. Currently, the best practice is to use a client s e-mail address as the SIP URI, such as 16 Chapter 1
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