INTRODUCTION used. Using XML as a marshaling format,

INTRODUCTION used. Using XML as a marshaling format, framed by SOAP, possibly over HTTP, is known as Web Services. The popularity of XML and Web Services, like the popularity of SQL, is fairly easy to explain. Managers of computer systems have learned over time to shy away from proprietary solutions, mostly because companies often change hardware and operating system (and other) software over time. In addition, a company may have to communicate with other companies that use an unlike architecture. Therefore, protocols like HTTP, formats like XML and CSV (comma-separated value) files, and languages like SQL, XPath, XSLT, and XQuery tend to be used for a single reason they are available on every hardware and software platform. Consider as an example the RDS (remote data services) architecture used by Microsoft to marshal resultsets (known as recordsets) over HTTP in a compact binary format, as opposed to XML, a rather verbose text-based format. Because Microsoft invented the RDS marshaling format (known as Advanced Data Tablegrams, or ADTG), other vendors (such as Netscape) refused to support it. This is known as the NIH (not invented here) syndrome. On the other hand, visit any large software or hardware manufacturer on the planet and ask, Who invented XML? The answer is always the same: We did. Since XML (or SQL, to expand the analogy) could not possibly be perceived as a Microsoft thing or an Oracle thing, support is almost universal. SQL Server as an XML Repository and Web Service Server SQL Server 2005 supports creating Web Services and storing data to be used in Web Services at a few different levels. The XML data type and XQuery support mentioned previously is a good start. Data can be stored in XML format inside SQL Server and used directly with XQuery to produce or consume Web Services. With the addition of direct support in SQL Server for HTTP, we could think of SQL Server 2005 as a Web Service server. This reduces the three-tier architecture usually required to support Web Services (database, middle tier, and client) to a two-tier architecture, with stored procedures or XQuery/XSLT programs being used as a middle tier. Client Access And Then There Are Clients Client-Side Database APIs and SQL Server 2005 Database programmers, especially those who specialize in procedural dialects of SQL, tend to forget that without client access libraries, a database is just a place to keep data. Although the SQL language itself was

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