INTRODUCTION Managed code has made .NET so compelling.

INTRODUCTION Managed code has made .NET so compelling. Development tools produce managed code from .NET classes. Managed code is so named because it runs in an environment produced by mscoree.dll, the Microsoft common object runtime execution engine, which manages all facets of code execution. These include memory allocation and disposal, and class loading, which in traditional execution environments are a major source of programming errors. .NET also manages error recovery, and because it has complete information about the runtime environment, it need not always terminate an entire application in the face of an error such as an out-ofmemory condition, but can instead just terminate a part of an application without affecting the rest of it. .NET code makes use of code access security that applies a security policy based on the principal running the code, the code itself, and the location from which the code was loaded. The policy determines the permissions the code has. In .NET, by default, code that is loaded from the machine on which it runs is given full access to the machine. But code loaded from anywhere else, even if run by an administrator, is run in a sandbox that can access almost nothing on the machine. Prior to .NET, code run by an administrator would generally be given access to the entire machine regardless of its source. The application of policies is controlled by a system administrator and can be very fine grained. Multiple versions of .NET, based on different versions of user-written classes or different versions of the .NET base class libraries (BCL), can execute side by side on the same machine. This makes versioning and deployment of revised and fixed classes easier. The .NET kernel or execution engine and the base class libraries can be written to work with different hardware. A common .NET programming model is usable in x86-based 32-bit processors, like those that currently run versions of Windows 9x, Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP, as well as mobile computers like the iPaq running on radically different processors. The development libraries are independent of chipset. Because .NET classes can be Just-In-Time compiled (JIT compiled), optimization based on processor type can be deferred until runtime. This allows .NET to integrate more easily with the new versions of 64-bit processors. .NET tools compile code into an intermediate language (IL) that is the same regardless of the programming language used to author the program. Microsoft provides C#, Visual Basic .NET, Managed C++, JavaScript, and J#, a variant of the Java language that emits IL. Non-Microsoft languages such as COBOL.NET and Eiffel.NET are also first-class citizens. Code written in

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