178 CHAPTER 4 UNDERSTANDING EXCHANGE 2003 DATA STORAGE

PLANNING STORAGE CAPACITY 179 Figure 4.26 The Outlook 2003 AutoArchive dialog box Once you have enabled automatic archiving for a mailbox, you should set the properties for each folder that you want AutoArchive to process. Figure 4.27 shows the AutoArchive properties for my Calendar folder. Figure 4.27 The Calendar folder s AutoArchive properties Figure 4.27 shows that all items older than three months will be moved to the archive PST file. The archive file path is too long to be entirely visible in the text box, but the default is to store it in the user s profile directory (in the Application DataOutlook folder). The alternative to archiving old calendar entries is to delete them permanently. Each of the folders in your mailbox has different autoarchive settings. Check these folders to make sure they are configured the way you expect. Message items that are moved to an archive file are recoverable from the Deleted Item cache if you have enabled the DumpsterAlwaysOn Registry key.

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178 CHAPTER 4 UNDERSTANDING EXCHANGE 2003 DATA STORAGE

178 CHAPTER 4 UNDERSTANDING EXCHANGE 2003 DATA STORAGE Local Delivery Outlook clients do have the option of automatically pulling down all messages to a PST file as soon as the messages are delivered to their mailboxes on the server. After pulling the message off the server, the client deletes it from the server. This dramatically reduces the amount of storage that the server requires. Though I do not personally like storing active messages this way, I know administrators who use this feature and find it to be quite acceptable. This feature is enabled in the messaging profile. From Outlook 97, 98, or 2000, choose Tools Services; choose Control Panel Mail (or Mail and Fax). Create a PST file if it has not previously been created to store the messages. Select the Delivery tab, and in the Deliver New Mail to the Following Location drop-down box, select the personal folder name to which you want the messages delivered. For Outlook 2002 and 2003, you must edit the e-mail accounts under Tools E-mail Accounts. Figure 4.25 shows the E-mail Accounts properties page. You can specify a PST file in the Deliver New E-mail to the Following Location drop-down list box. If Mailbox Display Name is shown, this indicates that new mail will be delivered to (or left in) the Exchange mailbox. Figure 4.25 Message delivery options Outlook Automatic Message Archiving Even though I have made an argument for using PSTs less, you are still not happy with all that old e-mail on the Exchange server. One option is a feature that Outlook provides called AutoArchive, which automatically moves messages from a server-based mailbox to a PST file. This feature is enabled at each Outlook client, or you can create a system policy to enable it for all of your users. AutoArchive is enabled slightly differently for different versions of Outlook, but the basic idea is the same. It has to be enabled prior to configuring the folders for automatic archiving. To enable AutoArchive, choose Tools Options Advanced (or Other) AutoArchive; the AutoArchive dialog box shown in Figure 4.26 appears. From this dialog box, you control how often AutoArchive will run (the default is every 14 days), whether the user is prompted to run AutoArchive, whether items that are expired can be deleted, and the name of the default PST file. The directory that the Archive.pst file is placed in appears by default. Some administrators specify a path on the local hard disk (in the user s profile directory), and others specify the user s home directory on a shared file server.

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Chapter 15 Connectivity within Your Organization Most often,

INTRODUCING ROUTING GROUPS 617 between locations, and so on). I have heard figures as low as 28.8KB available bandwidth, but I usually recommend about 64KB of available bandwidth. NOTE Active Directory sites and Exchange 2000/2003 routing groups may share the same architecture in your organization, but essentially they bear no relationship to one another. Here are some issues to consider and plan for when designing routing groups: . Network connectivity should be full-time, reliable, and low latency. . At least one Global Catalog server should be located within each routing group. . All servers in a routing group communicate with one another point-to-point (in a full mesh). . Communications between servers within a routing group cannot be scheduled. Administering Routing Groups To ease administration of routing groups and connectors, you may want to consider creating a separate administrative group called Routing Group Administrative Group or Message Routing Administration. Assign Exchange Admin permissions only to the people who will need to manage connectors and routing groups. Then, in that administrative group, create a routing groups container in which you ll create the routing groups you want to use. Figure 15.1 shows Exchange System Manager and the Message Routing Administration administrative group. Figure 15.1 Message Routing Administration administrative group Moving Servers Once routing groups are created, moving Exchange 2003 servers between them is simple. I find it easiest if I have both routing groups open so that I can see their Members containers (refer to Figure 15.1). To move a routing group, click and drag the server to another routing group s Members container and then release. To move a server between routing groups, the administrator performing the move must have at least write permissions on each of the routing groups objects. Either the Exchange Administrator or Exchange Full Administrator roles will allow you to move servers between routing groups. You will not be able to move the server between routing groups if that server is acting as a bridgehead server for any connectors that join routing groups. If you try to move a server configured as a

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Chapter 15 Connectivity within Your Organization Most often,

616 CHAPTER 15 CONNECTIVITY WITHIN YOUR ORGANIZATION Introducing Routing Groups Routing groups were introduced to give Exchange architects more flexibility when building a large Exchange 2003 organization. With the help of administrative groups (collections of Exchange 2003 servers that are all administered by the same user or group), routing groups separate message routing administration from server administrative. An Exchange 2003 routing group is a collection of Exchange 2003 servers that are interconnected by permanent, full-time connectivity. The following are some characteristics of Exchange servers and clients within a single routing group: . Messages are sent directly from one Exchange server to another. (They communicate with one another in a full mesh.) . Message delivery cannot be scheduled between servers. . Message delivery cannot be restricted by size or sender to another server. . Outlook MAPI clients connect to Exchange public folder servers in their own routing group before connecting to a public folder server in another routing group. NOTE Exchange 2003 servers can be moved between routing groups, but the organization should be in native Exchange 2000/2003 mode. Native mode means that all the servers in the organization are running Exchange 2000 or Exchange 2003. Designing an Effective Routing Group Many organizations will have sufficient bandwidth between all of their Exchange servers so that they will not need multiple routing groups. However, you might want to break up your organization into multiple routing groups for a few reasons: . Your organization has multiple sites connected by WAN links whose available bandwidth is often less than 64KB of available bandwidth. . You have remote locations that are not connected via full-time connectivity, or the connectivity is not reliable. . You need to schedule when messages are sent to another group of servers, or you want to schedule when messages larger than a specified size are sent to those servers. . You want to restrict the message size or sender of a message to servers in a specific group. . You want to control when certain types of messages (such as public-folder replication messages) are transferred. . You have remote locations that are connected via an X.25 connection. . You want to focus public-folder connectivity to a certain group of public folder servers. . You want to control the message path through bridgeheads or over more than one hop. When you begin to split any Exchange organization into routing groups, you want the structure to be as efficient as possible and to meet the needs of your organization. One of the most common questions I am asked is What is sufficient bandwidth for servers within a routing group? I have never seen an official recommendation from Microsoft on this, so I have to fall back on my old reliable answer: it depends on the reasons you are breaking up the organization in the first place (focusing public folder connectivity, the size of your messages, the amount of bandwidth, the need for SSL/TLS

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Chapter 15 Connectivity within Your Organization Most often,

Chapter 15 Connectivity within Your Organization Most often, Exchange 5.5 based organizations were designed around the geographical, connectivity infrastructure, and bandwidth constraints of the organization they served. This was irrespective of how the organization was really administered, because Exchange 5.5 servers have to be grouped together and managed as an Exchange 5.5 site. The Exchange 5.5 site is a collection of Exchange 5.5 servers separated by permanent, high-speed connectivity, and it serves as a boundary of administration, directory replication, and messaging connectivity. Connectivity between all servers within the Exchange 5.5 site is handled using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs), which are synchronous and, therefore, do not tolerate low-speed connectivity very well. Connectivity within the site includes all server-to-server e-mail messages and Exchange 5.5 directory replication. Unfortunately, the Exchange 5.5 site design proved to be too rigid for many large organizations wanting to separate their message routing needs from their server administration tasks. Therefore, the concept of administrative groups and routing groups was introduced. Administrative groups and routing groups ease administration and make Exchange 2003 more flexible; this is especially true in organizations that did not need separate sites for server administration but had to create them because of bandwidth constraints. Because Exchange 2003 does not have its own directory database (it relies on Active Directory), directory replication between Exchange 2003 servers is moot. Furthermore, to make Exchange 2003 more tolerant of low-speed links and more standard server-to-server message routing, it uses SMTP instead of RPCs. Exchange 2003 uses SMTP for connectivity between all Exchange servers in a native-mode organization. However, Exchange 2003 does not provide the SMTP transport and queuing components; Windows Internet Information Services (IIS) provides them. Exchange 2003 merely extends the functionality of the Windows SMTP Service by adding additional DLLs (dynamic link libraries). NOTE SMTP is the native transport between Exchange 2000 and Exchange 2003 servers. This chapter first discusses the concept of routing groups and why you would choose multiple routing groups. Once I have outlined the basics of routing groups, I will go into more detail about how to use multiple routing groups and the connectivity options between routing groups. I m assuming you have a basic understanding of SMTP and that you have reviewed Chapter 14, SMTP and Message Routing.

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612 CHAPTER 14 SMTP AND MESSAGE ROUTING Otherwise,

614 CHAPTER 14 SMTP AND MESSAGE ROUTING . Using Telnet to troubleshoot problems . Taking advantage of diagnostic and protocol logging Making an Exchange server more secure when using SMTP over both public and private networks is also important. An administrator can do some simple tasks to make their server more secure and to possibly protect SMTP data on public networks. As organizations are being migrated or collapsed, administrators may need to share a single SMTP address space with more than one SMTP-based messaging system. This introduces its own complexities and potential problems into your environment. In the following chapters, I will go into more details about connecting Exchange 2003 servers between routing groups and also more about connecting Exchange 2003 to the Internet.

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612 CHAPTER 14 SMTP AND MESSAGE ROUTING Otherwise,

READ RECEIPT 613 4. On the Address Space property page, create an SMTP address space for volcanosurfboards.com: 5. Save the SMTP Connector by clicking OK. Once this is configured, if a message arrives on HNLEX01 for a recipient that is not a recipient in the Exchange organization, it will be forwarded to KONEX01. Relay Domains You can set up other domains for which you want to store messages for ETRN, or TURN, or to be forwarded. These domains are not domains for which you accept messages locally. For your Exchange servers to accept messages inbound for this domain, you must configure a recipient policy; in Exchange 5.5, you would have modified the Exchange 5.5 IMS Routing property page. To do this in Exchange 2003, follow the same steps as you would to create an additional recipient policy, but don t create any filter rules for this address. This means none of your local users in Exchange will have that SMTP address in their e-mail addresses list. On the E-mail Addresses (Policy) property page, create a new SMTP address and make sure that the This Exchange Organization Is Responsible for All Mail Delivery to This Address check box is selected in the SMTP Address dialog box. The final two steps required are to configure the remote domain s SMTP server to pick up its mail via ETRN and to configure an SMTP Connector to deliver the messages to this domain. Read Receipt SMTP is at the core of message delivery within Exchange 2000 and 2003. Understanding the basics of SMTP, as well as the security ramifications of using SMTP as your message transport, is important for Exchange 2003 administrators. Troubleshooting SMTP is an equally important skill to possess for an Exchange administrator. Some of the skills that are helpful include the following: . Troubleshooting NDRs . Resolving name resolution problems . Blocking or testing an open SMTP relay

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612 CHAPTER 14 SMTP AND MESSAGE ROUTING Otherwise,

612 CHAPTER 14 SMTP AND MESSAGE ROUTING Otherwise, anyone sending to an SMTP address that is not in the Exchange organization will receive an NDR message. For example, I m in an organization that is solely responsible for delivery of all mail to VolcanoSurfboards.com and I send a message to MFugatt@VolcanoSurfboards.com, I will receive this NDR: The following recipient(s) could not be reached: MFugatt@VolcanoSurfboards.com on 11/15/2003 4:02 PM The e-mail account does not exist at the organization this message was sent to. Check the e-mail address, or contact the recipient directly to find out the correct address. Enabling SMTP Virtual Server Forwarding If you have a single Exchange 2003 sever, you can easily configure Exchange 2003 to accommodate an environment in which you are in the process of migrating or are just sharing an SMTP domain name with a different mail platform. In this type of environment, you want inbound mail to come into an SMTP virtual server and let the Message Categorizer check to see whether the recipient is local. If the recipient is not local, you want the message forwarded to the other system s SMTP host. This scenario requires that you configure a recipient policy for this particular domain and then make sure that the This Exchange Organization Is Responsible for All Mail Delivery to This Address check box is cleared. If this is a mixed-mode Exchange organization, you will not be able to modify the highest-priority recipient policy. Furthermore, you will need to configure the SMTP virtual server that will be accepting mail for this domain (the one that the MX record is pointing to) with a host to which unresolved recipients are forwarded. You do this on the SMTP virtual server s Messages property page by filling in the FQDN of the host that will accept the messages in the Forward All Mail with Unresolved Recipients to Host box. (This property page was shown previously in Figure 14.12.) Configuring an SMTP Connector for Forwarding Mail In an organization that has more than one Exchange server and/or more than one routing group, a better way to forward all mail for a shared domain is using an SMTP Connector. You still have to configure the recipient policies to allow the SMTP address to be shared, though. As an example, let s say we want to take the two organizations shown in Figure 14.23. All mail for the users at Hiiaka Surfing arrives on HNLEX01. We need do the following to properly forward mail. On HNLEX01, configure an SMTP Connector, following these procedures: 1. Create an SMTP Connector that uses one or more local SMTP virtual server bridgeheads. 2. On the General property page of the SMTP Connector, click the Forward All Mail Through This Connector to the Following Smart Hosts check box, and enter the hostname of the remote SMTP system. In the case of Volcano Surfboards, I would enter konex01.hiiakasurfing.com. 3. On the General property page of the SMTP Connector, make sure the Do No Allow Public Folder Referrals box is checked.

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394 CHAPTER 9 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE Fixing the BOOT.INI

396 CHAPTER 9 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE TIP Domain controllers by default can accept only 20 LDAP queries at a time. A heavily loaded domain controller may generate LDAP_ADMIN_LIMIT_EXCEEDED errors. See www.somorita.com/ e2k324seven/tuningLDAP.doc for more information. Tuning DSAccess In larger AD sites and domains (more than a few thousand users), the Active Directory domain controller that is functioning as the PDC emulator operations master may also become inundated with requests, such as during Windows NT 4 domain controller synchronization and pre-Windows 2000 client password changes. If the PDC emulator is on the same network as the Exchange server, the Exchange 2003 DSAccess component picks the PDC emulator for Active Directory requests, but this may not be the best use of your domain controller resources, because this can cause degraded performance on the domain controller and on the Exchange server. Starting with Exchange 2000 SP2, a property page on Exchange server (the Directory Access property page) allows you to configure the domain controllers and Exchange servers that Exchange uses. Registry settings do the same thing, but the property page (shown in Figure 9.12) is much easier to use. So, should you really modify these entries? If you are not having problems, then I recommend leaving them alone. The Exchange 2003 DSAccess component is pretty good about finding close domain controllers and Global Catalog servers, and it is good at automatically failing over to another domain controller or Global Catalog if one fails. TIP If you find that Exchange 2003 is using domain controllers and Global Catalog servers in distant sites (over the WAN) even though your local domain controllers and Global Catalog servers are running fine, then you probably have an issue with how the Active Directory sites are defined in Active Directory Sites and Services. If you are going to manually configure the domain controllers that are used for the configuration, domain, and Global Catalogs, then you have to first select which option you are going to choose in the Show drop-down list. Once you have done this, then the Automatically Discover Servers check box will be enabled, and you can clear it. Figure 9.12 Manually configuring DSAccess

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394 CHAPTER 9 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE Fixing the BOOT.INI

OPTIMIZING EXCHANGE 2003 395 The parameter is called msExchESEParamCacheSizeMax and is configured for each InformationStore object. You must use ADSIEdit to edit this attribute of the InformationStore object. For a server named HNLEX01 in the Somorita.net domain whose Exchange organization is Somorita Surfboards and the administrative group name is First Administrative Group, then the location in the directory is as follows: cn=InformationStore,cn=HNLEX01,cn=servers, cn=First Administrative Group,cn=Administrative Groups, cn=Somorita Surfboards,cn=Microsoft Exchange, cn=services,cn=configuration,dc=Somorita,dc=net. Figure 9.11 shows the InformationStore object s properties in ADSIEdit. The msExchESEParam- CacheSizeMax attribute is the maximum number of buffers ESE will allocate for caching. When you configure a value, make sure that the value, when multiplied by 4,096, is evenly divisible by 8,192. The total buffer size is optimized an even number of buffers. Figure 9.11 Changing the ESE buffer size Optimizing Active Directory Access One of the key causes of weird problems and server failures with Exchange 2003 is that the server will lose contact with its Active Directory domain controllers and Global Catalog servers. If this occurs, the Exchange server will neither be able to read the configuration partition of the directory nor be able to route messages. Active Directory availability is critical to the operation of Exchange 2003. For this reason, each location that contains an Exchange 2003 server with more than 1,000 mailboxes should contain at least two Windows domain controllers, one of which should be a Global Catalog server. TIP The root cause of most of the problems I have with Active Directory ends up being DNS. Always confirm DNS is resolving properly when diagnosing Active Directory and Exchange problems. The best favor you can do your Exchange 2003 servers with respect to accessing Active Directory is to make sure the Exchange 2003 servers and the Active Directory domain controllers and Global Catalog servers are on the same high-speed, switched network segment.

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